A Poverty Resource Hub of Focus on the Global South Philippines

Family Matters: Delving into the 2010 Winning Political Clans

Family Matters: Delving into the 2010 Winning Political Clans

Jan 14, 2012

Family Matters: Delving into the 2010 Winning Political Clans

By Carmina B. Flores-Obanil


“Of the 12 apostles, five are first degree cousins of Jesus. John the Baptist was his second-degree cousin. The rest are either second-degree or half-cousins. Of the 12, the only one not related to Jesus by blood was Judas Iscariot who betrayed the Lord. Now don’t tell me this dynasty of Marcos, or my dynasty and the dynasty of Dimaporo in Lanao are our invention. Jesus was the one who invented the dynasty.”
Ramon M. Durano Sr., as cited in Coronel (1986), Coronel et al (2004)

If Jesus truly invented dynasties as pointed out by Ramon Durano Sr., of the formidable Durano clan in Cebu and former member of the Lower House representing Danao City, then Jesus must be very happy with the way the May 2010 elections turned out.  If the results were any indicator, the Filipinos would not be seeing the decline of political clans or dynasties in the Philippines anytime soon.  In fact, the last elections saw the victory or the re-election of political families in both national and local positions in their respective bailiwicks.

Familial politics
The continuing dominance of political families in their respective areas in the last elections only strengthens the long-held view that “family” matters in Philippine society. The best example is President elect Benigno “Noynoy” Aquino III victory which rode heavily on his pedigree i.e. his family’s known political name. At the same time, how blatantly “family matters” spill into the political, economic and social spheres in Philippine society is proof of how deeply entrenched familial politics is in the Philippines.

The primacy and centrality of family in Philippine society cannot be overstated.  Not only is the family seen as a “basic autonomous social institution” under the 1986 Constitution, but the Constitution in fact mandates the defense, protection and strengthening of the family as a basic national principle.

At the same time, the Filipino family often provides what the Church and the State cannot, especially in terms of social services that are actually part and parcel of the usual services provided by developed countries to its citizens. In the Philippines thus, the family usually provides socialization, education, employment, health and medical care, protection and shelter to the young, the handicapped and the aged. For the elite of society, name, honor, lands, wealth and values are the legacies of the family to the next generation, which becomes that generation’s own capital to further their power—be it political, social or economic.

As noted by Alfred McCoy, an American historian who has extensively written on Philippine and Southeast Asian history, Filipino families have provided continuity to the country’s economic, social and political history. He observed that political parties in the Philippines are more of “coalitions of powerful families.” Eric Gutierrez of the Institute of Popular Democracy also wrote that “what passes for political parties in the Philippines are coalitions of political clans” and that the “building block of parties are families.”  Gutierrez authored the book “All in the family: a study of elites and power relations in the Philippines,” published by IPD in 1992.

And they are back…
And this is true. Gone is the disdain and horror Filipinos felt about the dictatorship that the Marcoses imposed on the Filipino nation, if the victory of the son, daughter of wife of the former dictator would be used as indicator.  Two members of the Ampatuan clan won seats in Congress despite the charges they are facing for murders committed in the Maguindanao massacre.  The disdain for the Macapagal-Arroyos may still be very strong, but members of the family are big winners in the recent elections.

The Arroyos won several seats in Congress despite their unpopularity, although this is also probably partly due to their generosity in dispensing patronage and their access to unlimited largesse available to Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo when she was still at the pinnacle of power. The 2nd district of Camarines Sur re-elected presidential son Diosdado “Dado” Arroyo while presidential brother-in-law Ignacio “Iggy” Arroyo Jr. won a seat in the 5th district of Negros Occidental.  The Pampangueños  elected outgoing President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo as their congressional representative.  And last and perhaps the least, another presidential son Miguel Mikey Arroyo gets to represent security guards in Congress under the Ang Galing Pinoy party. The various seats the Arroyos have won in Congress re-ignited speculations that outgoing President GMA is eyeing the House of Representatives speakership to attempt constitutional change that will lead to a shift to a parliamentary system. Using Congress, some fear, she will have a chance of becoming Prime Minister, which would restore her as ruler of the country.

The Marcoses of Ilocos Norte are also back in a big way. Now they have a governor (Maria Imelda or more popular as “Imee”) who won over re-electionist and cousin Michael Keon, a congresswoman in the 2nd district (the mother Imelda) and a senator (Ferdinand Jr. or “Bongbong”). The only member of the family who is missing in politics is youngest daughter, Irene.

The Dys are also back in power in Isabela through a governor (Faustino III) and a congressman (Napoleon) in the 3rd district. The Dys defeated re-electionist Governor Grace Padaca effectively ending the hiatus in their previous 30-year reign in Isabela. Their latest victory, however, was allegedly brought about by the assistance of the Albanos and is tainted by reports of massive vote-buying.

The Singsons of Ilocos Sur won thirteen (13) provincial and congressional seats belying the commonly-held superstition that it is an unlucky number. Led by the controversial, Governor Luis “Chavit” Singson, the Singsons have two congressmen (Chavit’s son Ronald and former Representative Eric Singson’s son Eric Jr.), two mayors (Chavit’s niece Eva in Vigan and also former Representative Eric Singson’s son Allen in Candon),  a vice-mayor in Vigan City (son Ryan),  and other various posts in the provincial government.

Perpetuating their dynasties
The Cojuangco-Aquinos are the principal winners in the last elections and perhaps the best proof of how familial ties remain a determinant in winning Philippine electoral politics. Proclaimed president Benigno Simeon “Noynoy” Aquino III is the biggest winner, trumping a former president, a billionaire and a cousin. Two congressmen (re-electionist Representative Jesli Lapus and newcomer Enrique Cojuangco) are Noynoy’s relatives who won in Tarlac,  the acknowledged bailiwick of the Cojuangco-Aquinos.

The Binays of Makati also won big. Now they have a mayor (Jejomar Erwin or “Junjun”), a congresswoman in Makati’s 2nd district (Marlen Abigail) and a vice-president (Jejomar “Jojo”).

The Belmontes also succeeded in cementing their control of Quezon City through a vice-mayor (Joy), a congressional representative (Feliciano Jr.) and their continuing alliance with the new mayor, Herbert Bautista, and another congressional winner, Winnie Castelo.

The Umalis of Nueva Ecija have been termed as the “New Ecija” dynasty, though the Josons (who ruled the province for 50 years) still managed to capture several positions. The Umalis now have a governor (Aurelio), a congresswoman in the 3rd district (Czarina), a Provincial Board member (Emmanuel Anthony), and various other positions in the small towns of Nueva Ecija. The Josons on the other hand have maintained the mayoralty (Mariano Cristino) in Quezon, their known bailiwick and the 1st district seat in Congress (Mariano Cristino’s wife and re-electionist Representative Josefina), and a provincial board member seat.

The Duterte daughter and father tandem (Rudy and Sara) in Davao City won the mayoralty and vice-mayoralty, foiling House Speaker Prospero Nograles’ own mayoralty bid, though Nograles’ son Karlo Alexei won the 1st district congressional seat vacated by his father.

The Garcias of Cebu have maintained the gubernatorial seat (Gwendolyn, daughter of the patriarch Rep. Pablo Garcia) and won two congressional seats for the 2nd and 3rd districts of Cebu. The Duranos also got a congressional seat (Ramon VI) and the mayoralty (Ramon Jr. in Danao City).
The Ortegas of La Union and San Fernando have also won the gubernatorial race (Manuel); 1st district congressional seat (Victor Francisco) and the mayoralty in San Fernando city (Pablo).

Except for the 1st district congressional seat which was won by another known political family in Bataan (Herminia Roman); the Garcias of Bataan also prevailed, with a governor (Enrique Jr.), a congressman (Albert Raymond) and mayor (Jose Enrique III for Balanga City).
The Dimaporos won the gubernatorial race (Mohamad K Quinbranza) and two congressional seats (imelda Quinbranza and Fatima Allah Quinbranza) in Lanao del Norte.

Other known political clans and dynasties also fared well by winning more than one elective position—the Lagmans of Albay; the Sy-Alvarados of Bulacan; the Chipecos of Laguna; the Marañons of Negros Occidental; the Ponce-Enriles of Cagayan; the Reyeses of Marinduque; the Villafuertes of Camarines Sur; the Emanos of Misamis Oriental; the Romualdos of Camiguin; the Espinas of Biliran; the Rectos of Batangas; the Dazas of Northern Samar; the Cagas of Davao del Sur; the Amantes of Agusan del Norte; the Javiers of Antique; etc.

Still, while other families can say that they are really not a political clan having only captured one elective position, they are part of a political dynasty whose power has been transferred inter-generationally or through conjugal relations. These include the Abads of Batanes (wife of Butch Abad, Henedina); the Tañadas of Quezon (Lorenzo III); the Mitras of Palawan; the Aumentados of Bohol; the Satos and Villarosa of Oriental Mindoro; the Ynares’ of Rizal; the Lobregats of Zamboanga; the Jalosjos of Zamboanga del Norte and Sibugay;  Escuderos of Sorsogon; Diazes and Magsaysays of Zambales; Macias of Negros Oriental; the Apostols and the Romualdezes of Leyte; the Fuentebellas of Camarines Sur; the De Venecias of Pangasinan; the Gullas of Cebu; the Ledesmas of Negros Occidental, among others. These political families or dynasties have been around and have played a major role in shaping Philippine history and politics. The Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism (PCIJ) came up with a table listing political clans winning in different elections. The table has been juxtaposed below with the current 2010 election winners so as to give an estimation of how long these political families have thrived. (see table)


Known Political Clans Provinces/Bailiwicks PCIJ’s Clans by Period of their Election to the Legislature * 2010 Winners**
Abad Batanes Post-War Republic 1945-1959 YES
Abalos Mandaluyong City   YES
Abaya Cavite   YES
  Isabela Post-Marcos Period 1986-2004  
Acosta Bukidnon Post-Marcos Period 1986-2004  
Adaza Misamis Oriental    
Adiong Maguindanao Post-War Republic 1945-1959 YES
Aganon Nueva Ecija    
Agbayani Pangasinan Post-War Republic 1945-1959 YES
Akbar Basilan   YES
Albani Tawi-tawi    
Albano Isabela   YES
Alberto Catanduanes    
Alfelor Camarines Sur Martial Law (1972-1986)  
Almario Davao Oriental Post-Marcos Period 1986-2004 YES
Almonte Misamis Occidental   YES
Amante Agusan del Norte Martial Law (1972-1986) YES
Amatong Compostela Valley   YES
Ampao Basilan    
Ampatuan Maguindanao   YES
Andaya Oriental Mindoro Martial Law (1972-1986)  
  Camarines Sur Martial Law (1972-1986) YES
Angara Aurora Commonwealth Period (1935-1942) YES
Angkanan Sultan Kudarat   YES
Anni Sulu    
Antonino General Santos Post-War Republic 1960-1972 YES
  Nueva Ecija   YES
Apostol Leyte US Colonial Era 1907-1934 (pre-commonwealth) YES
Aquino Tarlac Malolos Congress YES
Armada Iloilo    
Arroyo Camarines Sur   YES
  Pampanga   YES
  Negros Occidental   YES
Asistio Caloocan Post-Marcos Period 1986-2004  
Astorga Leyte    
Atienza Manila    
Aumentado Bohol US Colonial Era 1907-1934 (pre-commonwealth) YES
Bacani Manila    
Badelles/Lluch Lanao del Norte Japanese Occupation (1942-1945)  
Bagatsing/Sevilla Manila Commonwealth Period (1935-1942) YES
Balanquit Northern Samar    
Barbers Surigao del Norte Post-Marcos Period 1986-2004 YES
Barroso South Cotabato    
Baterina Ilocos Sur   YES
Belmonte Quezon City Japanese Occupation (1942-1945) YES
Belo Capiz    
Biazon Muntinlupa    
Bichara Albay   YES
Binay Makati City   YES
Bondoc Pampanga Post-Marcos Period 1986-2004 YES
Brawner Ifugao    
Bulut Apayao Post-Marcos Period 1986-2004 YES
Cabacang Northern Samar    
Caballero Compostela Valley    
Cagas/Almendras Davao del Sur Post-War Republic 1945-1959 YES
Cainglet Zamboanga City    
Calingin Misamis Oriental    
Calizo Aklan    
Calo Butuan City    
Calumpang Negros Oriental    
Candao Shariff Kabunsuan    
Cappleman Ifugao    
Carag Cagayan    
Cari Leyte   YES
Carloto Zamboanga del Norte Post-Marcos Period 1986-2004  
Catane Misamis Occidental    
  Zamboanga del Norte    
Cayetano Taguig   YES
Celera Masbate    
Cerilles Zamboanga   YES
Chiongbian Sarangani Post-War Republic 1945-1959  
  Cebu Post-War Republic 1945-1959  
  Misamis Occidental Post-War Republic 1945-1959  
Chipeco Laguna Post-War Republic 1960-1972 YES
Clarete Misamis Occidental    
Claver Mountain Province    
Climaco Zamboanga City   YES
Crisologo Ilocos Sur    
  Quezon City   YES
Cojuangco Tarlac US Colonial Era 1907-1934 (pre-commonwealth) YES
  Pangasinan US Colonial Era 1907-1934 (pre-commonwealth) YES
Corvera Agusan del Norte   YES
Cosalan Benguet Post-War Republic 1960-1972 YES
Cua Quirino Post-Marcos Period 1986-2004 YES
Cuenco Cebu US Colonial Era 1907-1934 (pre-commonwealth)  
Cuneta Pasay City    
Cupin Agusan del Norte    
Dalog Mountain Province   YES
Dalwasen Apayao    
Dangwa Benguet Post-Marcos Period 1986-2004 YES
Datumanong Maguindanao Martial Law (1972-1986) YES
Daza Northern Samar US Colonial Era 1907-1934 (pre-commonwealth) YES
Defensor Iloilo   YES
Delfin Antique    
De la Cruz Bulacan    
De Leon Misamis Oriental    
De Venecia/Perez Pangasinan US Colonial Era 1907-1934 (pre-commonwealth) YES
Del Rosario Davao del Norte Martial Law (1972-1986) YES
Diaz Nueva Ecija US Colonial Era 1907-1934 (pre-commonwealth) YES
Dilangalen/Piang Maguindanao US Colonial Era 1907-1934 (pre-commonwealth)  
Dimaporo Lanao del Norte Post-War Republic 1945-1959 YES
Dominguez Mountain Province Martial Law (1972-1986)  
Dominguez-Alcantara Sarangani   YES
  Davao del Sur    
Duavit Rizal Martial Law (1972-1986)  
Dumpit La Union    
Dupaya Cagayan    
Durano/Calderon Cebu Post-War Republic 1945-1959 YES
Duterte Davao City   YES
Dy Isabela Post-Marcos Period 1986-2004 YES
Ecleo Dinagat Islands   YES
Emano Misamis Oriental   YES
Ermita Batangas    
Escudero Sorsogon   YES
Espina Biliran Martial Law (1972-1986) YES
Espino Sorsogon    
Espinosa Masbate/Toledo City   YES
Estrella Pangasinan US Colonial Era 1907-1934 (pre-commonwealth)  
Estrada/Ejercito San Juan City   YES
Eusebio Pasig   YES
Famor Zamboanga Sibugay   YES
Fernandez Pangasinan/laguna   YES
Figueroa Samar    
Floirendo/Lagdameo Davao   YES
Fresnedi Muntinlupa City    
Frivaldo Sorsogon    
Fua Siquijor Post-Marcos Period 1986-2004 YES
Fuentebella Camarines Sur US Colonial Era 1907-1934 (pre-commonwealth) YES
Fuentes/Avance South Cotabato   YES
Garcia Clan Cebu   YES
Garin Iloilo Post-Marcos Period 1986-2004 YES
Gentuyaga Compostela Valley    
Gonzales Mandaluyong City US Colonial Era 1907-1934 (pre-commonwealth)  
Gordon Olongapo City Martial Law (1972-1986) YES
Guiao Pampanga    
Gullas Cebu US Colonial Era 1907-1934 (pre-commonwealth) YES
Guingona Bukidnon    
  Misamis Oriental   YES
Hattaman Basilan   YES
Herrera Bohol    
Hofer Zamboanga Sibugay    
Imperial Albay US Colonial Era 1907-1934 (pre-commonwealth)  
Jaafar Tawi-tawi Post-Marcos Period 1986-2004 YES
Jalosjos Zamboanga del Norte Martial Law (1972-1986) YES
Javier Antique Post-Marcos Period 1986-2004 YES
Joson Nueva Ecija   YES
Kho Masbate   YES
Kintanar Cebu Commonwealth Period (1935-1942)  
Lacbain Zambales    
Lacson Negros Occidental US Colonial Era 1907-1934 (pre-commonwealth) YES
Lagman Albay Post-Marcos Period 1986-2004 YES
Lapid Pampanga   YES
Larrazabl Leyte    
Laurel Batangas Malolos Congress  
Lavin Northern Samar    
Lazaro Laguna    
Lazatin Pampanga Martial Law (1972-1986) YES
Ledesma/Laguda Negros Occidental US Colonial Era 1907-1934 (pre-commonwealth) YES
Lerias Southern Leyte    
Leviste Batangas US Colonial Era 1907-1934 (pre-commonwealth)  
Libanan Eastern Samar    
Ligo Sultan Kudarat    
Locsin Negros Occidental US Colonial Era 1907-1934 (pre-commonwealth) YES
Lobregat Zamboanga City   YES
Loong Sulu    
Lopez Iloilo US Colonial Era 1907-1934 (pre-commonwealth)  
  Manila Martial Law (1972-1986)  
Loreto Leyte    
Lucman Lanao del Sur    
Luna Abra   YES
Maamo Southern Leyte    
Macapagal Pampanga    
Macias Negros Oriental Post-War Republic 1945-1959 YES
Madrigal Manila    
Maganto Bulacan    
Magsaysay/Diaz Zambales Post-War Republic 1945-1959 YES
Malanyaon Davao Oriental   YES
Malinas Mountain Province    
Mandanas Batangas   YES
Mangudadatu Maguindanao/Sultan Kudarat   YES
Marañon Negros Occidental Martial Law (1972-1986) YES
Marasigan Oriental Mindoro    
Marcos Ilocos Norte US Colonial Era 1907-1934 (pre-commonwealth) YES
Martinez Cebu Post-Marcos Period 1986-2004 YES
Matalam Cotabato    
Matba Tawi-tawi    
Mathay Quezon City    
Matugas Surigao del Norte   YES
Mayaen Mountain Province   YES
Mayo Batangas    
Mendiola Occidental Mindoro    
Mercado Leyte   YES
Miranda Isabela    
Misuari Sulu    
Mitra Palawan Commonwealth Period (1935-1942) YES
Molinas Benguet    
Montelibano Negros Occidental    
Montilla Sultan Kudarat   YES
Moreno Misamis Oriental   YES
Mutilan Lanao del Sur    
Nava Guimaras   YES
Navarro Surigao del Norte Commonwealth Period (1935-1942) YES
Nepomuceno Pampanga Post-War Republic 1945-1959  
Nisce La Union    
Nograles Davao del Sur   YES
Ocampo Misamis Occidental    
Olivarez Laguna    
Olvis Zamboanga del Norte    
Ople Bulacan    
Ortega La Union Commonwealth Period (1935-1942) YES
Osmeña Cebu US Colonial Era 1907-1934 (pre-commonwealth) YES
Ouano Cebu    
Padilla Camarines Norte    
  Nueva Vizcaya Martial Law (1972-1986) YES
Pagdanganan Bulacan    
Palma-Gil Davao Oriental US Colonial Era 1907-1934 (pre-commonwealth)  
Pancho Northern Samar    
Paras Negros Oriental US Colonial Era 1907-1934 (pre-commonwealth)  
  Bukidnon   YES
Paredes Abra    
Parojinog Misamis Occidental   YES
Pacificador Antique    
Paylaga Misamis Occidental    
Payumo Bataan    
Pelaez Misamis Oriental    
Pelegrino Bohol    
Perez Pangasinan Post-War Republic 1945-1959  
Petilla Leyte   YES
Pichay Surigao del Sur   YES
Pimentel Surigao del Sur US Colonial Era 1907-1934 (pre-commonwealth) YES
Piñol North Cotabato   YES
Pineda Pampanga   YES
Plaza Agusan del Norte Post-War Republic 1960-1972 YES
Ponce de Leon Agusan del Sur   YES
Ponce Enrile Cagayan US Colonial Era 1907-1934 (pre-commonwealth) YES
Publico Sultan Kudarat    
Puno Rizal    
Punzalan Quezon City Post-Marcos Period 1986-2004  
Rabat Davao Oriental    
Rama Agusan del Norte    
Ramiro Misamis Occidental Post-Marcos Period 1986-2004 YES
Ramos/Shahani/Braganza Pangasinan US Colonial Era 1907-1934 (pre-commonwealth) YES
Raquiza Ilocos Sur    
Real Zamboanga City    
Recto Batangas US Colonial Era 1907-1934 (pre-commonwealth) YES
Redaja Western Samar    
Remulla Cavite   YES
Relampagos Bohol    
Revilla Cavite   YES
Reyes Marinduque Martial Law (1972-1986) YES
Reymundo Pasig City    
Reyno Cagayan    
Robredo Camarines Sur    
Roman Bataan Post-War Republic 1960-1972 YES
Romualdez Leyte Commonwealth Period (1935-1942) YES
Romualdo Camiguin   YES
Rono Western Samar    
Roqueros Bulacan    
Roxas Capiz US Colonial Era 1907-1934 (pre-commonwealth)  
Rodriguez Rizal US Colonial Era 1907-1934 (pre-commonwealth)  
  Misamis Oriental US Colonial Era 1907-1934 (pre-commonwealth) YES
Sahidulla Sulu    
Salazar Eastern Samar    
Salceda Albay   YES
Sali Tawi-tawi    
Salipudin Basilan    
San Luis Laguna    
Sanchez Cebu    
Sandoval Malabon    
Sarmiento Bulacan Post-War Republic 1960-1972  
  Catanduanes   YES
Sering Surigao del Norte    
Sison Pangasinan US Colonial Era 1907-1934 (pre-commonwealth)  
Silverio Bulacan Post-Marcos Period 1986-2004  
Singson Ilocos Sur Martial Law (1972-1986) YES
Sinsuat Shariff Kabunsuan    
Siquian Isabela    
Soliva Agusan del Norte    
Sotto Leyte    
Suplico/Tupas Iloilo Martial Law (1972-1986)  
Sumulong Rizal Post-War Republic 1945-1959  
Sy-Alvarado Bulacan   YES
Tañada Quezon Post-War Republic 1945-1959 YES
Tanjuatco Rizal Post-War Republic 1945-1959  
Tatad Catanduanes    
Tan Samar   YES
  Misamis Occidental   YES
Tanco Capiz   YES
Tolentino Tagaytay    
Teodoro Tarlac US Colonial Era 1907-1934 (pre-commonwealth) YES
Teves Negros Oriental US Colonial Era 1907-1934 (pre-commonwealth) YES
Trinidad Compostela Valley    
Ty Surigao del Sur Post-War Republic 1960-1972  
Umali Nueva Ecija   YES
Uy Samar   YES
  Davao del Norte   YES
Valentino Marikina    
Valera Abra    
Velasco Western Samar    
Veloso Leyte US Colonial Era 1907-1934 (pre-commonwealth)  
Verceles Catanduanes    
Villanueva Negros Occidental    
  Negros Oriental   YES
Villar Las Piñas Post-Marcos Period 1986-2004 YES
Villafuerte Camarines Sur   YES
Villareal Capiz    
Villarosa Occidental Mindoro   YES
Violago Nueva Ecija    
Yap Tarlac Post-War Republic 1960-1972 YES
Yebes Zamboanga del Norte   YES
Yulo Laguna    
  Negros Occidental US Colonial Era 1907-1934 (pre-commonwealth)  
Ynares Rizal   YES
Yniguez Leyte    
Zamora Mandaluyong/San Juan Martial Law (1972-1986)  
Zubiri Bukidnon Martial Law (1972-1986) YES
* only traces clans based on their entry to Congress      
** the election results examined to determine the winners are both national and local positions.      
the local positions examined are until the level of elected mayor.      

Predictable results
The results of the 2010 elections are not surprising or new. Sociologist-professor Randy David succinctly summarized it in his newspaper column, “If anyone is still looking for confirmation of the determining role that the Filipino family plays in the nation’s political life, he will not find better proof than the results of this year’s national and local elections. It is the victory of entire clans that is being heralded—particularly that of the Arroyos in Pampanga, Negros and Camarines Sur; the Marcoses of  Ilocos Norte; the Singsons of Ilocos Sur; the Ortegas of La Union, the Garcias of Cebu; the Dys of Isabela; the Binays of Makati; the Dutertes of Davao—just to name a few of the big winners. No one talks how political parties have fared, or what proportions of votes they have captured in these elections.”

It has been said that the “strength of the family is a reflection of the weakness of the state.” But since the state has often been controlled and at times held hostage by the interests of these political families, the weakness of the state is perhaps precisely cultivated. Cultivated and nurtured to the extent that the strength and influence of these political families can thrive and be preserved for their next generations.

 (Published in Focus on the Philippines June 2010: http://focusweb.org/oldphilippines/content/view/430/6/)

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *